Basics of Spanish language
Everything in Spanish is either male or female.
The language is charged with gender power.
If two words are not paired correctly, the imbalance creates waves of discomfort in its users.
Knowing Spanish gender separates the Spanish language learners from the fluent speakers.
If you already speak a Romance language (those that come from Latin), then you will not be confused by this characteristic. If you are used to speaking in neutral terms, be prepared to open a new avenue of perception in your mind. This will change the way you view the world.
Getting the hang of Spanish gender can take time, but it is the next big step after getting a handle on the Spanish learning basics, such as learning how to self-teach, making Spanish words plural and knowing where to place accent marks. The following tips regarding Spanish gender will help train your brain to recognize, categorize and eventually produce gender accurately while speaking Spanish.
A noun is born: Male or female?
A noun is a person, place, thing or idea. Every noun in Spanish has a specific article that denotes the gender of the word. They can be definite or indefinite and have four forms:
masculine singular → el
masculine plural → los
feminine singular → la
feminine plural → las
el niño → the boy la niña → the girl
los niños → the boys las niñas → the girls
el restaurante → the restaurant la casa → the house
los restaurantes → the restaurants las casas → the houses
el papel → the paper la mesa → the table
los papeles → the papers las mesas → the tables
el pensamiento → the thought la idea → the idea
los pensamientos → the thoughts las ideas → the ideas
Living Creatures are referred to by the gender they represent
This one is simple. Every living creature is either an or a la. If you are an English speaker you have always referred to creatures with the. The Spanish language is a lot more detailed in this respect. It loves to observe and categorize the differences. With this in mind, take note of the first two rules for mastering Spanish gender:
- When speaking about living creatures, nouns that end in “o” are masculine.
el gato → the male cat el perro → the male dog
los gatos → the male cats los perros → the male dogs
el chico → the boy el oso → the male bear
los chicos → the boys los osos → the male bears
el abuelo → the grandfather el tío → the uncle
los abuelos → the grandparents los tíos → the uncles
- When speaking about living creatures, nouns that end in “a” are feminine.
La gata → the female cat la perra → the female dog
Las gatas → the female cats las perras → the female dogs
La chica → the girl la osa → the female bear
Las chicas → the girls las osas → the female bears
*Beware of the gender trap!*
There is a slight possibility that you might fall into a “gender thinking trap.” This deception tricks you into thinking that everything associated with a male will automatically be masculine and everything associated with a female will automatically be feminine. This is false. Only distinct living creatures fall under this categorization.
The following examples clearly illustrate how objects commonly associated with each gender do not follow the rule.
- la corbata → the necktie
- el maquillaje → the makeup
To keep you from falling into this trap, a very important step you can take is to experience and interact with these nouns in real-world situations. How can you do that from home? Through online Spanish immersion with FluentU!
FluentU is a video-based Spanish learning site which helps you learn the language through real-world videos, such as movie trailers, commercials, news and inspiring talks. Just take a look at this very, very small sampling of the video content below.
You can get a pretty good idea of the diversity of the content from that little list alone, but I strongly encourage you to click over to the site and take a better look, up close and personal!
There are a few different ways you can go about playing (ahem, I mean, “learning”) with FluentU. After choosing an individual video based on your skill level and personal interests, you’ll be prompted to choose between “watch” and “learn” modes.
If you opt for “watch, ” you’ll watch your videos as normal with interactive subtitles that are translated both by word and by sentence.
If you click on “learn, ” then you’ll go straight to the personalized flashcard content using key vocabulary from the video, giving you a chance to practice either ahead of time or after watching the clip. This “learn mode” actually integrates pictures, video clips and example sentences into the flashcards, making for truly memorable in-context learning experiences.
You can start using FluentU on the website with your computer or tablet or, better yet, by downloading the app from the iTunes store.
So, be sure to get in your authentic Spanish practice to really get these genders down. Ready for our last six rules?
The Masculine in Spanish
When there is a crowd or a group of people, animals, ideas or things that have a mixed gender, what gender is used?
If you answered, “the masculine gender is always used when there is a mixed group, ” you are already thinking in the same direction as the Spanish language.
- When there is a group of mixed gender, no matter what the ratio is of females to males and males to females, the group is always referred to as masculine.
1 niño + 4 niñas = 5 niños 1 boy + 4 girls = 5 kids
3 gatos + 542 gatas = 545 gatos 3 male cats + 542 female cats = 545 cats
The masculine gender has more power than the female gender when it comes to making the rules. Although the words have the same value, the male acts as the default leader. To make the word feminine you simply add the feminine “a” touch.
- Masculine nouns that end in consonants (non-vowels) have a corresponding feminine form that ends in “a”
el profesor → the male professor la profesora → the female professor
el doctor → the male doctor la doctora → the female doctor
el señor → the Mr. la señora → the Mrs.
Nouns, Gender and Professions
Some nouns that refer to professions do not change their forms. This does not mean that the importance of gender disappears. If the word does not change, the article is in full charge of specifying gender.
- Some nouns that refer to professions have the same form for masculine and feminine. The article is the only thing that changes.
el piloto → the male pilot la piloto → the female pilot
el soldado → the male soldier la soldado → the female soldier
el modelo → the male model la modelo → the female model
el poeta → the male poet la poeta → the female poet
el atleta → the male athlete la atleta → the female athlete
el psiquiatra → the male psychiatrist la psquiatra → the female psychiatrist
Optional brain exercise* Make a list of nouns that currently surround you (wherever you are) in English (you decide on how many you want to attempt). Try to guess their gender in Spanish. Look up the words and see how many you got right and what rules you recognize.
Some words are exclusively reserved for female articles and others are exclusively reserved for male ones. These will admit no opposite intervention, ever! The use of masculine articles with exclusively feminine endings and vice-versa will disrupt and distort your communication.
- Nouns that end in –sión, –ción, –dad, –tud and –umbre will always require the feminine article.
la exposición → the exhibition
la habitación → the room
la felicidad → the happiness
la solicitud → the application
la costumbre → the custom
- Nouns that end in –ma require a masculine article